Save Paper, Save Trees

Paper is a very important material used in our daily life. It is used in variety of ways. Whilst among many uses, the paper is chiefly used for the purpose of writing and printing.

The word paper derives from the Greek word ‘Papyrus‘ (Egyptian writing material) which was formed from beaten strips of papyrus plant.

Paper is made of cellulose pulp, derived mainly from wood, rags, and certain grasses processed into flexible sheets by deposit from an aqueous suspension.

Uses of Paper:

Paper can be used in various ways, such as for communication, storing information, cleaning, construction, representing a value, packaging, and personal use etc.

Paper making products:

Paper gives us lot of useful products. Here a list of common products made from paper is:

  • Books
  • Notebooks
  • Report cards
  • Greeting cards
  • Menu cards
  • Paper-bags
  • Paper money
  • Medical chart
  • Bandages
  • Envelopes
  • Tarpaper
  • Sand paper
  • Wrapping papers
  • Paper boats
  • Paper airplanes
  • Newspaper
  • Magazines
  • Catalogs
  • Wallpaper
  • Photographs
  • Playing cards
  • Stickers
  • Telephone directories
  • Disposable items
  • Stationery
  • Table -cloths
  • Grocery-bags
  • Kites
  • Tissue paper
  • Bank notes
  • Tickets
  • Cheque
  • Security voucher

Why recycle paper?

Paper recycling is the process of collecting, processing, reusing and recovering the waste paper and remaking into new products rather than throwing it away in the trashcan which in turn, conserves raw materials and energy that needs to make new products.

Did you know if each individual save one sheet of paper per day, then 40,000 trees are saved per year.

Saving paper, in turn, saves trees, saves energy, saves water, chemicals utilized in making of paper, and also reducing garbage.

We should start the process of recycling the waste material from home first rather than what others are doing outside and continue it as it helps to control waste disposal problems, and also saves money that they would otherwise have spend for disposal.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that recycling of paper causes 35% less water pollution, and 74% less air pollution than making new paper and paper products.

Industrialized making of paper is de-stabilizing our earth’s climate and reusing and recycling of paper can help to stabilize and conserve our environment to a great extent.

Recycling is the only key to cut down the amount of waste, to reduce pollution, to save renewable energy, to save trees, and to save money. But before we thinking about recycling anything, the very best thing we can do for health and well being of our planet to use less resource in our daily life.

Recycling of paper could save seventeen trees, causing reduction of 587 pounds of air pollution, 15,644 liters of water, in turn, reduces 58%of air pollution, 4077 kilowatt of energy, thereby reducing energy requirement by 64%, 1042 liters of oil, reducing oil pollution by 64% and oil requirement by 45%. About 55% of municipal waste is paper and paper products before recycling. Recycling one ton of newspaper reduces 3cubic meters of landfill.

Millions of people buy newspaper daily and simply throw away in the trashcan after reading it out without knowing the fact, that it takes 24 trees to make one ton of newspaper.

Recovered paper must be clean for successful recycling. It should be free from contaminants, such as food, dirt, plastic metal, and other kinds of trash, as contaminated paper makes the process of recycling quite difficult. Contaminated paper which cannot be recycled must be composted, burned for energy or land filled in order to reduce the bulk of garbage around us.

Reduce, reuse, and recycle is a simple and great way to cut down the amount of paper use. Practicing these 3R’s also helps in saving our energy and protecting our environment.

HOW PAPER WASTE CAN BE REDUCED:

It is important to realize our responsibilities how to make our planet green and better place for our future generation to live in. Concerted efforts need to make in this direction before it is too late. By adopting the following ways helps to reduce the paper consumption, which in turn, saves trees and reduces the greenhouse gases emission.

  • Companies can save significant sums on printing costs by publishing reports electronically rather than on paper.
  • Use mobiles or e-mails for communication purposes instead of sending letters.
  • Create best out of waste also helps to control and manage waste better thereby, reducing the impact on our environment as well as our health.
  • Use durable items rather than disposable items, as it stays longer and can also save money and minimize the amount of waste. Repair the things rather than buying new items also reduces the amount of waste.
  • Use both sides of paper for printing.
  • Recycle newspaper by turning them into something useful, instead of discarding it away. It also reduces the amount of materials going into landfills.
  • Send get well soon cards and greeting cards on special occasions over the Internet.
  • On average, 16% of the money we spend on packaging which ultimately ends up as rubbish. So avoid over packaging goods.
  • Use coffee mugs for your tea or coffee instead of paper cups at work place.
  • Use unbleached or uncolored paper in bulk to reduce packaging.
  • Buy paper that has minimum chlorine content.
  • Stop printing whenever possible.
  • Reduce font size while printing.
  • Books, which you need no longer, and are in a good condition, donate to the library. These in turn, raise the money for the library to buy new items.
  • Get and pay your bills online rather than through the post.
  • Let your child to use white/black board for writing rather than paper. This way they can rub off what they do not need which in turn; lot of papers can be saved.
  • Watch the news on television, or you can read the news online instead of buying newspaper. This helps to kill paper waste instead of trees.
  • If you wish to create an eco-friendly atmosphere in the office, then go paperless.
  • Use cloth napkins in place of paper napkins, as they are more hygienic and also minimize the paper waste.
  • Place your orders by phone, e-mail or online.
  • Keep recycling bins on the roads; at the railway station, or bus stand where people can drop off the waste materials, or you can directly deliver it to the recycling center.
  • Use cloth bags instead of paper bags to carry the items you buy.
  • Use unused side of paper for jotting down the notes before dropping it in the recycling box.

We are using and wasting paper almost without care, and without realizing that how severe the consequences could be. It is need to think – “AS YOU SOW, SO SHALL YOU REAP“. Let’s do our part to save our mother earth from getting it more spoiled and make it greener, cleaner, and better place for future generation to enjoy.

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Help Finding Good Scholarship Essay Examples

There are many places to begin your search for scholarship essay examples. And with the use of the internet, there are several sites that you can use to get ideas of what to write and what to avoid in your essay. The essay is the most important part of your scholarship application, so you want to make sure you give the best impression you can. Here are some tips to help you find essay examples to assist you.

Online financial aid resources can provide you with scholarship essay examples that can help you write a very appealing essay. They will have information and tips about what you should write and what not to write in your essay. They also have examples of other essays that may be required for college admission.

Talk to your high school counselor, or your college adviser. They can give you some essay examples, and you can have them proofread your essay once you are done writing it, these professionals will have insight into what the admissions officers are looking for in an essay. And it is always a good idea to have one or two people read over your finished essay in order to make sure there are no grammatical errors.

Use the internet to find various sites that will help you in writing your essay. They provide essay examples, along with tips to help you design your scholarship essay outline. Having an outline can make the writing portion of the essay go a lot smoother. And you will be able to write a better essay, which will increase your odds of winning the scholarship you are applying for.

You can also check with your local WorkForce career center. This is the same place that you would go if you needed file for unemployment. WorkForce offers more than just unemployment benefits, they offer certain types of job training, employment help, and college admissions help. They will have scholarship essay examples that are specific to the type of essay you need to write. The more tailored made your essay is the better your chances are for winning your scholarship.

The more scholarship essay examples you read, the better prepared you will be to write your own essay. The essay portion of your application is the most important. The essay is the first impression and quite possibly the only time you will have the opportunity to give an impression of who you are. And that impression is only as good as the way you write your essay.

Jimmer Jenkins has been in the field of writing for a long time and maintains a website with scholarship essay examples in hopes of helping students get money for college. You can find other good college essay examples there as well.

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Essay Paper Writing: Building An Introductory Paragraph

In general, an essay is structured in three parts — an introduction, the body, the conclusion. Think of the introduction as a single paragraph designed to introduce the thesis statement. Often persons build an introductory paragraph before having developed an effective thesis statement indicating less than the most effective organization of thinking about the topic of a paper! In this article, using an example thesis statement, the development of an introductory paragraph for an actual essay assignment is described.

In a cultural diversity class the author had an assignment to write an essay to “…review a current article that discusses or illustrates the portrayal of some aspect of cultural diversity in U.S.society.” One current article which appeared to meet the assignment directions concerned black officers in the U.S. military — it illustrated an aspect of cultural diversity in U.S. society. So the general topic of the proposed essay became “A review of a current newspaper article that discusses black officers in the U.S. military illustrating an aspect of cultural diversity in the U.S.” This statement of the general topic of the proposed essay serves as the basis for the first sentence in the introductory paragraph. The first sentence of the example introductory paragraph might be something like “The media addressing some aspect of cultural diversity that was selected for this paper is a newspaper article discussing black officers in the U.S. military.” Notice how this sentence clearly states what is the general topic of the essay which IS the main point of the introductory paragraph. Also notice how words from the assignment directions are used in this sentence — communicating to the essay evaluator that the writer is paying attention to the assignment directions.

For the example essay paper assignment, one thesis statement developed was “Regarding black officers in the U.S. military, the author in this essay presents performance examples of these officers, then describes programs in the U.S. military to promote black officer candidates, and then explores challenges still facing black officers in the U.S. military.” Notice how this statement begins with communicating the general topic of the paper followed by the presentation of three main points to be addressed in the essay using action verbs (presents, describes, explores) to identify what the author intends to do with each main point in the essay. For the most effective organization of thinking for an essay, stick with focusing on three and only three main points. This thesis statement becomes the last sentence in the introductory paragraph. So the statement of the general topic is the basis for the first sentence and the thesis statement is the last sentence in an introductory paragraph — what’s between these two sentences?

Although there are many resources available via the Internet describing how to build paragraphs, this author uses a simple four-sentence method for constructing a basic paragraph. In a basic paragraph, first sentence, often labeled the “topic sentence,” states what is the main point of the paragraph. Second sentence provides some evidence that demonstrates or supports the main point. Third sentence describes for the reader how the writer understands the information provided in the second sentence DOES demonstrate or support the main point stated in the first sentence. Since the first three sentences DO communicate the main point of the paragraph, provide evidence to support or make that point, and explain how the evidence provided DOES support the main point according to the writer’s understanding, then by the end of the third sentence, the point of the paragraph HAS BEEN MADE. Therefore, sentence four is designed to communicate to the reader that the point of the paragraph has now been made AND introduce the reader to the main point of the next paragraph. This four-sentence structure may be used to develop the three main paragraphs in an essay (and any subparagraphs for the main paragraphs) as well as developing the introductory paragraph.

Using this four-sentence structure to build the introductory paragraph, start the paragraph with a statement that clearly communicates the general topic of the paper. The topic statement developed for this example assignment as indicated previously is “A review of a current newspaper article that discusses black officers in the U.S. military,” so a possible first sentence might be “The media addressing some aspect of cultural diversity that was selected for this paper is a newspaper article discussing black officers in the U.S.military.” Notice how this sentence clearly communicates up-front to the reader what is the general topic of the essay and it clearly communicates to the essay evaluator the author’s understanding of the assignment!

Following the four-sentence process for paragraph development, the second sentence is expected to provide some information that illustrates or supports the point stated in the first sentence. For this example essay assignment, the located newspaper article that discusses black officers in the U.S. military IS the support or evidence to present in the second sentence — and the article located, via some online research is titled “After 60 years, black officers rare” by L.C. Baldor, published in The Times Herald, 7/28/08. So the second sentence of the example introductory paragraph might be something like “In the newspaper article ‘After 60 years, black officers rare,’ the author of the article indicates that although ‘Blacks have made great strides in the military since it was integrated 60 years ago, but they still struggle to gain a foothold in the higher ranks [in the military]’.” Of course, at the end of this sentence is expected a “citation” to show the source of the information presented in the second sentence — like (Baldor, 2008, ¶ 1). Please note the role of a citation is to point the reader to the related reference that is expected on the “References” page at the end of the essay — and note the citation consists of last name of the author, year of publication of the article, and, in this case, a number indicating the specific paragraph in the article where the cited information may be located (because this online article did not provide page numbers). What to notice in this second sentence is how the information presented in the sentence directly supports or MAKES the point stated in the first sentence, BUT, don’t leave it up to the reader to make that connection on his or her own — in the third sentence, communicate explicitly to the reader how YOU, the writer, understands the information in the second sentence demonstrates the point stated in the first sentence.

So the third sentence in the example introductory paragraph is expected to clearly communicate to the reader how the information in the second sentence does support the main point of the paragraph as stated in the first sentence. For this example, a third sentence might be something like “This information clearly indicates the selected newspaper article presents some aspect of cultural diversity, that aspect being blacks in the U.S. military still struggling to achieve higher ranks.” Notice how this sentence communicates explicitly to the reader the writer’s understanding of exactly how the information presented in the second sentence supports the main point stated in the first sentence. At this point, the main point of this paragraph HAS BEEN MADE.

All that remains to be added to complete this example introductory paragraph is the fourth sentence, and for the “introductory” paragraph, the fourth sentence IS the thesis statement, which has been developed already! So the completed example introductory paragraph is:

The media addressing some aspect of cultural diversity that was selected for this paper is a newspaper article discussing black officers in the U.S.military. In the newspaper article “After 60 years, black officers rare,” the author of the article indicates that although “Blacks have made great strides in the military since it was integrated 60 years ago, but they still struggle to gain a foothold in the higher ranks [in the military]” (Baldor, 2008, ¶ 1). This information clearly indicates the selected newspaper article presents some aspect of cultural diversity, that aspect being blacks in the U.S.military still struggling to achieve higher ranks. Regarding black officers in the U.S.military, the author in this essay presents performance examples of these officers, then describes programs in the U.S.military to promote black officer candidates, and then explores challenges still facing black officers in the U.S.military.

Notice the four-sentence structure of this introductory paragraph. Notice how the general topic of the essay is clearly stated in the first sentence and notice how the supporting evidence in the second sentence and the explanation of how that evidence does support the general topic of the essay leads the reader to the statement of the thesis — the last sentence in the introductory paragraph. Notice how the last sentence in this introductory paragraph (the thesis statement) communicates to the reader a clear outline of what the reader may expect in the essay, thus providing the reader an opportunity to develop an initial structure of thinking in his or her own brain to use to build an effective understanding of the main points the author of the essay intends to communicate to the reader.

This same four-sentence paragraph structure may be used to develop the expected three “main” paragraphs in the example essay (one main paragraph for each of the three main points in the thesis statement) as well as any subparagraphs for each main paragraph. Using the example introductory paragraph developed in this article, might the reader have developed an effective understanding of the four-sentence basic paragraph structure illustrated to create the expected three main paragraphs for this essay example? Try it!

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Falling Standard Of Education In Nigeria: Who Is To Be Blame?

The concept ” falling standard of Education” is a relative term because there is no well defined instruments to measure it with utmost reliability and validity. That is why scholars’ views on the concept varies. These scholars view it at different perspectives, depending on the angle each of them is looking at it.

Babalola, A (2006) sees the concept from admission of Nigerian University products in developed countries universities. That the first six Nigerian Universities (University of Ibadan, Ile Ife, Lagos, Benin, Nsukka and Zaria) had their products competing favourably with any other University in the world as their products were sought for by University of Harvard, Cambridge, Oxford and London for admission into their post-graduate courses. That these students record breaking performances and when they graduate are employed by the best multi-national companies and corporate bodies globally unlike today where no Nigerian University is among the top 6,000 Universities of the world (Adeniyi, Bello (2008) in Why no worry about rankings). He sees standard from how universities contribute to knowledge and solving problems besetting mankind.

According to Gateway to the Nation (2010), University of Ibadan is ranked 6,340th University in the world. In Africa, University of Ibadan is ranked 57th, OAU 69th and South African Universities are leading the way in Africa.
He also use written and spoken English as a yardstick for measuring standard of education which University of London conducted a research in West Africa and the result showed that teachers trained by colonial masters were better of than those trained by indigenous teachers.

He also used staffing, funding, foundation, origin and students as standard of education.

Standard of education to Dike, V. (2003) is how education contribute to the public health (or sociopolitical and economic development of a Nation).

Standard of education to either passing or failing of external examinations like WAEC, NECO, NABTEB, JAMB,(NOW UTME) among others.

Teachers without Boarders (2006) looks at educational standard from how the products of schools can be measured in terms of outcome. That is how school leavers contribute to the society in terms of cognitive affective and psychomotor. I will be using students to refer to both students and pupils, I will use head teacher to refer to both principal and headmaster.

Which ever way you may view standard of education, for you to conclude whether the standard is falling or not, you must take into consideration all the aforementioned variables including achieving educational goals.

Equally, for justice to be done while measuring these standards one has to look at reliability where all the schools to be measured must have the same infrastructure, teaching materials, quality of teachers, level and degree of learners, condition within which learning takes place, some methods of assessment and some types of contribution to the society among others.

CAUSES OF FALLING STANDARDS

Haven discussed what makes up standard in education, may I crave your indulgence to some of the established facts that constitute falling standard of education in Nigeria.

(1) Discipline: This is one of the outstanding attributes of education when it is rightly observed.

a. Repeating: school no longer observe repeating as every student is promoted to the next class whether they understand or not gives room for falling standard.
b. Attendance: The 75% of attendance universally accepted as the bases for someone to sit for examination is no longer observed.
c. Late coming: Student that come late are no longer punished, which leads to their losing morning classes.
d. Misbehaviour: Students are no longer punished for misbehavior because of their parental influences (lost of jobs or unnecessary transfer).
e. Cultism: This could refer to rituals, usually under oath binding the members to a common course. They operate covertly in fulfillment of their objectives to the detriment of other people. Thus, planning secondary needs above primary needs.

These cults exist because of over population of students in schools, wrong admissions not based on merits, hence fear of examination failures and selfish worldly gains.

(2) Quest for paper qualification: Nigerians respect paper qualification above performance in the fields. Hence, cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains are supposed to be measured on the field.

(3) Politicizing education: Merit is no longer regarded as it is now ” who you know” and not “what you can deliver” Technocrats (educationists are not appointed Commissioner of education and education board).

(4) Policy problem: Sometimes the type of policies government make on education adversely affects output. For instance, in College of Education, we have National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE), competing with JAMB for admission as the two guidelines vary.

Equally, WAEC, NECO, NABTEB, JAMB ( now UTME) compete with qualifying pre-requisites and regulation of entries into tertiary institutions.

(5) Teachers not being part of the examination bodies. One wonders whether the continuous Assessment submitted by these teachers are used or not.

(6) Accessibility of Schools: The Nigerian population boom has outnumbered the existing schools as the existing schools have to over admit.

This point can be practically seen in the following areas:

(i) Teacher / Student ratio of 1:25 is no longer there as in my class, it is 1:3900.
(ii) Students / books / Journals ratio of 1:10 is no longer feasible.
(iii) Politics of admission: Schools can no longer set targets for admission to conform with their facilities as powerful notes from above will force the school authorities to either over admit or find themselves in the labour market again. Yet it is those that are giving these notes are suppose to build more schools or provide needed infrastructure etc. to accommodate those collecting these notes.

(7) Over-dependent on cognitive domain: Schools do not give regards to affective domain that will mould characters of our young ones. Little attention is given to psychomotor while no attention is given to affective domain.

(8) Shortage of qualified teachers: Some schools in the rural areas only have the headmaster as government employee while the rest that may be secondary school drop outs are PTA staff. What miracle can these staff perform? Dike, V. (2006) observed that only 23% out of the then 400,000 primary schools in Nigeria have grade II even when NCE is now the minimum qualification for teachers at primary and Junior Secondary schools.

(9) Teachers welfare: It is no longer news that

(a) Politicians do not have negotiation council to negotiate their salary increase.
(b) There is no disparity among political office holders from the federal, state and local governments.
(c) Their salaries are increased at astronomical manner.
(d) Their salaries are increased any time without recourse to whether the nation’s economy can bear it or not.
(e) But for teachers, they must negotiate the 10 to 20% of an attempt to increase their salary with consideration of the economy of the nation. How can these teachers contribute and perform miracle when their family members are in the hospitals and the O.S. syndrome is written on their cards by pharmacists while they do not have money to treat.

(10) Constant Strikes: This is an impediment to smooth covering of syllabus. Oefule (2009) explained that one Nigerian guest asked a question on strike at Oxford University community but the vice chancellor could not even remember about strike, only the registrar remembered it for 17 years back. This is what governance means to the people.

(11) Long rule of the military; Education was not properly funded by the military regimes as according to Babalola, A(2006) Obasanjos administration inherited many left over problems of the military such as non- payment of pensions and gratuities of retired University staff, poor remuneration of university staff, dilapidating buildings of schools, libraries with outdated books, obsolete laboratory equipments, bad campus roads, inadequate water and power supply among others.

(12) In the secondary and primary schools levels, schools do not even have buildings talk less` of furniture’s, equipments and reading materials. This is the level where the foundation of education should be laid. Any faulty foundation will lead to faulty structures. What do you expect from the tertiary level?

(13) Lack of training of teachers: Teachers are not trained to update their knowledge with latest discoveries based on research, then how can they give what they don’t have?

(14) Poor state of Educational teaching facilities: Dike V. (2006) reported that research result shows that over 2015 primary schools in Nigeria do not have building but study under trees, talk less of teaching materials.

(15) Corruption: leaders of the schools and some Government officials either connive to buy equipments with loan money that cannot be of any use to the school or take such loans and do not even do anything with it.

(16) Poor budgetary allocation to education: A research work of 2001 shows that Nigeria only, allocate less than 20% to education it further reveals that Nigeria spends 0.76% to education as against Uganda 2.6%, Tanzania3.4%, Mozambique 4.1%, Angola 4.9%, Coted Ivore 5% Kenya 6.5% and South Africa 7.9% among others.

WHO IS TO BE BLAMED?

We have seen the causes of falling standards and from these causes we can deduce that the following are to be blamed:

1. Government suppose to carry the lion share of the blame because all the other variables are dependent variables to it.

2. Teachers also have their shares of the blame with regards to their diligent duties.

3. Parents: feeding has to be provided by parents. This is because parents do not leave schools to operate without interference.

4. Students: students who do not abide by school rules and regulations nor pay attention to their studies also contribute to falling standards. Students also seek for paper qualification and disregards to performance they also participate in cult activities that derail the progress of the academy.

5. The society is not left out as it is the way it sees and respects the products of these schools that recycles back again.

SOLUTION

Based on the problems or causes identified above, the following solutions are proffered: Schools should respect and restore back discipline to bring back the lost glory of our educational standards.

Performance should be regarded and respected more than just paper qualification. Equally, education should not be politicized for whatever reason.

Policy makers should be mindful of policies that affect education .eg JAMB(UTME) regulation in admissions.

Teachers should be involved in examination activities and examination bodies should always publish examination reports and distribute it to various schools for them to hold school workshop for training of subject teachers on their areas of weaknesses observed in the students’ scripts with regards to following the marking scheme.

More schools should be built to increase accessibility by all. Cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain should be used for assessment of students.

Teachers’ welfare should be given priority by government to avoid unnecessary strikes in our educational sector while more qualified teachers should be employed to curb the present shortage of teachers in our schools.

Our civilian government should prove to the people that they are better than military government.

Teachers should be trained so that they can meet up with any new challenges Educational facilities should be upgraded to modern standards while teaching facilities should be adequately provided.

Corruption should be eliminated to the barest minimum by all stakeholders while government should increase its budgetary allocations to education to improve the standard of education in Nigeria.

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Research Paper Topics – Write What Interests You

While browsing the internet for research paper topics, you may find yourself stuck and overwhelmed by the sheer volume of information available to you. How will you be able to avoid information overload? Which research topics will you explore? What will you write about?

You have that mistaken notion that once you sit there in front of the computer, the answer will come. But you keep on your endless browsing with no clear direction in mind.

Sometimes you find yourself opening your emails, reading blogs, stumbles around interesting and not-so-interesting websites, playing games, or chatting with your friends. All of these in the hope that you might bump into something and come up with your research topic.

Why is this so? The reason is that you have not asked yourself first about what really interests you. What are those things that excite you or get your attention.

In other words, write about those topics that gain your interest. But how will you know those things that interest you?

Here are steps on how to identify what you really want and at the same time arrive at topics that are worth pursuing.

Materials Needed

  • clean sheet of bond paper
  • pencil
  • marking pen
  • post-it note
  • a wall or anything you can post notes

Procedure

Step 1. Make a list.

Get a clean sheet of bond paper and pencil. Make a rapid list of words you have in mind. Anything goes. It could be a word or a phrase that represents an idea.

You need not make your list orderly. Write at the center, at the sides, at the bottom, anywhere you want. Just think and write freely. Do this for at least 30 minutes or until you have filled up the whole sheet.

It is best to do this on those times that you find your mind most active. Research findings on the human faculty reveal that those times come between 9 to 11:30 in the morning. The time, of course, varies between persons. So, suit yourself and find which time of the day works best for you.

Step 2. Identify which ones are measurable.

If you have finished your statistics course, you should be able to spot which of those in your list are variables. Variables are those items that you can measure or are measurable.

Using a marking pen, write those words legibly and large enough to be seen from a distance on small (2.5×3″) post-it notes. Post these words or phrases on a wall, a blackboard, whiteboard, or anything to hold your post-it notes. Leave it there for a while.

Step 3. Ponder the words or phrases on the wall.

Pause for a few minutes and ponder the words or phrases you have posted on the wall. Bring together related words by removing them from the wall and putting them close together. This will be the themes of your research paper. Each theme should have at least three words or phrases in it. Ponder which theme is most relevant to your field.

Step 4. Select from the group of themes.

Which theme appeal to you most? Select one and isolate from the rest.

Step 5. Identify the cause and effect from the words or phrases in the theme.

Arrange the words in the theme you have selected. Find out which one causes the other. Now, you have your dependent and independent variables. The effect is/are the dependent variable/s while the cause is/are the independent variable/s.

Step 6. Explore your research topic.

You are now ready to undertake your literature review. Search the internet for related studies using the set of dependent and independent variables you have identified.

This should prime you up to narrow down further your research paper topic. As you go along reading related studies, be flexible. Your research topic will evolve and get refined through time.

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What Is the Difference Between an Essay, a Dissertation and a Thesis?

These three assignment types; essays, dissertations and theses are all important to students because at some point in the life of a student, there will be the request to complete at least one of the assignment types listed above!

Essays, dissertations and theses are all types of academic documents, produced by scholars and students and based on a specific question, subject matter or dilemma. They are used by colleges, schools, sixth forms and Universities as a means of determining how well a student is performing in a certain subject area and how well they have grasped crucial knowledge about a particular subject. And yet essays, dissertations and theses’ are also often used to see how well a student is able to respond to specific questions on a particular subject matter and how well developed their skills are in terms of actually writing essays.

So what exactly is an essay? What is a dissertation? And what is a thesis?

The online dictionary defines an essay as; ‘(a) a short literary composition on a literary subject, usually presenting the personal view of the author, (b) something resembling such a composition.’

The online dictionary goes on to define a dissertation as; ‘a treatise advancing a new point of view resulting from research, usually a requirement for an advanced academic degree.’

And finally a thesis shares the same definition as a dissertation on the online dictionary website, with one crucial difference; a thesis is usually longer than a dissertation.

So ultimately an essay, a dissertation and a thesis all share many traits:

– They are all literary compositions; that is to say that they are written documents or pieces of text.

– They all reflect in some way the author’s point of view.

– They are all based on some form of research.

– They are all discussing some form of topic or subject matter.

– They can all be used as a means of academic testing.

However, there are differences between these three academic assignment types, and when you are completing either an essay, a dissertation or a thesis it is important to know what it is that defines the document as either one of these forms or assignment types so that you can ensure that you approach the completion of the document correctly.

Some of the main differences separating out these three document types are:

– Essays are generally shorter than dissertations and theses.

– Essays are usually used to explore an argument or to provide more information on a particular subject. Thus you’ll find that most essay questions start with ‘who, what, where, how or why’. They are looking for a conclusion to be drawn by the author, following an assessment of research that is already available.

– Dissertations are usually looking for the author to find new evidence to draw a conclusion about a specific subject matter, as the definition states, to ‘advance a new point of view’. This means that dissertations are looking to add to the research pool on a specific subject, not simply discuss research that is already available.

– Theses usually hold the same aims and goals as dissertations, but the level of exploration and investigation into a particular subject matter is greater, and so the length of a thesis is generally longer than that of a dissertation.

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Easy Scholarship For Average Students – 5 Easy Scholarships That Require Essays Only

If you are picky on the type of scholarship program you wish to be a recipient of, chances are, you might not be able to qualify for any at all. Not a lot of scholarships programs today were made for average students or those who never got straight A’s in their report card. However, just because you were never an Einstein prodigy back in high school doesn’t mean you are no longer eligible for college scholarships. Thankfully, you can apply for an easy scholarship– you know, scholarships that are not dependent on the applicant’s academic record in his/her previous school.

The sponsors of most scholarship programs today often judge a person’s eligibility by weighing their academic standing or their income report. The sad thing about this method is that, students who neither fall under these two crucial categories are often overlooked and in most times, never qualify for scholarships at all. The purpose of an easy scholarship is to provide average students with the chance to attend college despite their low grades in high school. Simply put, you need not be a genius to win a college scholarship. Being yourself is enough to qualify for an easy scholarship.

Some scholarships today award students with a cash prize that can go as little as $500 to as high as $8, 000. Moreover, some scholarships such as these are easier to apply for than other known scholarships. You could win a scholarship program by simply writing an essay or joining the school’s sports team. For other scholarships, you only need to register for the program and wait for the government or the sponsors to pick your entry among other applicants.

There are scholarship programs that accommodate students not through their academic standing but by making them pass an essay and instead of going through their high school records, the sponsors go through the content of their essays instead. If you have a knack for writing, applying for programs such as these could mean your chances of qualifying for a scholarship is higher– that is, if you have always been an average-level student in high school or in your previous school.

 

  • The Ayn Rand Institute provides a $10, 000 award and scholarship for those who can pass the best essay about Ayn Rand’s novel, The Fountainhead.
  • If you have great interest in music, the School Band and Orchestra Magazine Scholarship awards students with a scholarship. In order to qualify, simply write an essay about how music has made an impact in your life, among other topics.
  • The SPAACSE wants to know what you think about space travel. If you can write that down in an essay, you might just win a $1, 000-dollar grant.
  • The OP Loftbed Scholarship is sponsored by a company that sells loft-beds. If you can tell them how you hope to use loft-beds in your college dormitory, you might win a $500 scholarship prize.
  • Last but not the least, The Calgon Take Me Away to College Contest rewards about $8, 000 to students who can answer two-questions in essay type format. This contest is open to the ladies only.

 

If you find academic scholarships too tough to pass, applying for an easy scholarship would be a better alternate option to receiving free money for your college education. More importantly, the requirements for scholarships like these are easy to comply with, so you need not worry about taking entrance exams or passing other documents.

Let me share something else with you…

There are literally Hundreds of Easy Scholarships [http://scholarshipinfoguide.com] and grant programs available that are like getting Free Money!

I am constantly searching high and low for this kind of information and have found one site where you can get all the Scholarship and Grant information you need in one place.

Save yourself the headache of trying to do it all yourself and let people who have been in your shoes already help you out!

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